Anomalous sulphur isotopes in plume lavas reveal deep mantle storage of Archaean crust

TitleAnomalous sulphur isotopes in plume lavas reveal deep mantle storage of Archaean crust
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsCabral RA, Jackson MG, Rose-Koga EF, Koga KT, Whitehouse MJ, Antonelli MA, Farquhar J, Day JMD, Hauri EH
Date Published2013/04
Type of ArticleArticle
ISBN Number0028-0836
Accession NumberWOS:000317984400038
Keywordscycle; evolution; geochemistry; hosted melt; inclusions; lithosphere; microbial sulfate reduction; oceanic island basalts; origin; pb; sulfide inclusions

Basaltic lavas erupted at some oceanic intraplate hotspot volcanoes are thought to sample ancient subducted crustal materials(1,2). However, the residence time of these subducted materials in the mantle is uncertain and model-dependent(3), and compelling evidence for their return to the surface in regions of mantle upwelling beneath hotspots is lacking. Here we report anomalous sulphur isotope signatures indicating mass-independent fractionation (MIF) in olivine-hosted sulphides from 20-million-year-old ocean island basalts from Mangaia, Cook Islands (Polynesia), which have been suggested to sample recycled oceanic crust(3,4). Terrestrial MIF sulphur isotope signatures (in which the amount of fractionation does not scale in proportion with the difference in the masses of the isotopes) were generated exclusively through atmospheric photochemical reactions until about 2.45 billion years ago(5-7). Therefore, the discovery of MIF sulphur in these young plume lavas suggests that sulphur-probably derived from hydrothermally altered oceanic crust-was subducted into the mantle before 2.45 billion years ago and recycled into the mantle source of Mangaia lavas. These new data provide evidence for ancient materials, with negative Delta S-33 values, in the mantle source for Mangaia lavas. Our data also complement evidence for recycling of the sulphur content of ancient sedimentary materials to the subcontinental lithospheric mantle that has been identified in diamond-hosted sulphide inclusions(8,9). This Archaean age for recycled oceanic crust also provides key constraints on the length of time that subducted crustal material can survive in the mantle, and on the timescales of mantle convection from subduction to upwelling beneath hotspots.