|Title||Associations between ambient temperature and hepatobiliary and renal hospitalizations in California, 1999 to 2009|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2019|
|Authors||Malig B.J, Wu X.M, Guirguis K., Gershunov A, Basu R.|
|Type of Article||Article|
|Keywords||admissions; Biliary Tract Diseases; daily mean temperature; Environmental Sciences & Ecology; extreme-heat; health; Heat waves; Hospitalization; infections; kidney-function; liver-injury; outdoor; Public, Environmental & Occupational; risk-factors; seasonal-variation; Sepsis; sugarcane cutters; temperature; Urinary tract; Urolithiasis|
Background: High ambient temperature has been linked to a number of types of morbidity, such as cardiovascular disease and dehydration. Fewer studies have explored specifically the relationship between ambient temperature and liver, kidney, and urinary system morbidity despite known biological impacts of extreme high temperatures on those systems. Objective: We assessed the relationship between temperature and hospitalizations related to selected renal system (urinary stones, urinary tract infections, septicemia, chronic kidney disease, and a composite of selected kidney diseases) and hepatobiliary (biliary tract disease, other liver diseases [e.g. cirrhosis], non-diabetic pancreatic disorders) ailments. Methods: We compiled data on daily hospitalization counts for hepatobiliary and renal system diseases in California for 1999 through 2009, and matched it with meteorological data. Relationships between temperature and admissions during the warm season (May-October) were assessed at the climate zone-level cumulative over 14 days following exposure using distributed lag non-linear models, with adjustment for time trends and relative humidity, then combined using random-effects meta-regression to create statewide estimates. Results: Higher mean temperatures in the warm season were associated with significant increases in renal admissions for urinary tract infection [% change per 10 degrees F: 7.3, 95% CI: 5.6, 9.1], septicemia [% increase: 2.9; 95% CI: 1.5, 4.3], urinary stones [% increase: 15.2; 95% CI: 10.3, 20.4], and composite kidney disease. Additionally, increased temperatures were linked to increased admissions for biliary tract disease, but lower risk of other liver diseases. Some differences in association by race/ethnicity and regional meteorology were observed. Conclusions: Exposure to higher temperatures was associated with increased risk of multiple renal system hospitalization types, with additional links to specific hepatobiliary morbidities observed.