Asymmetry in growth and decay of the geomagnetic dipole revealed in seafloor magnetization

TitleAsymmetry in growth and decay of the geomagnetic dipole revealed in seafloor magnetization
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsAvery M.S, Gee J.S, Constable C.G
JournalEarth and Planetary Science Letters
Volume467
Pagination79-88
Date Published2017/06
Type of ArticleArticle
ISBN Number0012-821X
Accession NumberWOS:000401385500009
Keywordsanomalies; cumulative viscous remanence; dipole moment variations; intensity; layer; ma; marine magnetic anomalies; near-bottom; Paleointensity; paleomagnetic field; paleomagnetic field strength; records; saw-toothed pattern; scale; tiny wiggles
Abstract

Geomagnetic intensity fluctuations provide important constraints on time-scales associated with dynamical processes in the outer core. PADM2M is a reconstructed time series of the 0-2 Ma axial dipole moment (ADM). After smoothing to reject high frequency variations PADM2M's average growth rate is larger than its decay rate. The observed asymmetry in rates of change is compatible with longer term diffusive decay of the ADM balanced by advective growth on shorter time scales, and provides a potentially useful diagnostic for evaluating numerical geodynamo simulations. We re-analyze the PADM2M record using improved low-pass filtering to identify asymmetry and quantify its uncertainty via bootstrap methods before applying the new methodology to other kinds of records. Asymmetry in distribution of axial dipole moment derivatives is quantified using the geomagnetic skewness coefficient, sg. A positive value indicates the distribution has a longer positive tail and the average growth rate is greater than the average decay rate. The original asymmetry noted by Ziegler and Constable (2011) is significant and does not depend on the specifics of the analysis. A long-term record of geomagnetic intensity should also be preserved in the thermoremanent magnetization of oceanic crust recovered by inversion of stacked profiles of marine magnetic anomalies. These provide an independent means of verifying the asymmetry seen in PADM2M. We examine three near bottom surveys: a 0 to 780 ka record from the East Pacific Rise at 19 degrees S, a 0 to 5.2 Ma record from the Pacific Antarctic Ridge at 51 degrees S, and a chron C4Ar-C5r (9.3-11.2 Ma) record from the NE Pacific. All three records show an asymmetry similar in sense to PADM2M with geomagnetic skewness coefficients, s(g) > 0. Results from PADM2M and C4Ar-C5r are most robust, reflecting the higher quality of these geomagnetic records. Our results confirm that marine magnetic anomalies can carry a record of the asymmetric geomagnetic field behavior first found for 0-2 Ma in PADM2M, and show that it was also present during the earlier time interval from 9.3-11.2 Ma. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

DOI10.1016/j.epsl.2017.03.020
Short TitleEarth Planet. Sci. Lett.
Student Publication: 
Yes
Student: 
sharknado