|Title||Bicarbonate‐sensing soluble adenylyl cyclase is present in the cell cytoplasm and nucleus of multiple shark tissues|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2017|
|Authors||Roa JN, Tresguerres M|
The enzyme soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is directly stimulated by bicarbonate (HCO3−) to produce the signaling molecule cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Because sAC and sAC‐related enzymes are found throughout phyla from cyanobacteria to mammals and they regulate cell physiology in response to internal and external changes in pH, CO2, and HCO3−, sAC is deemed an evolutionarily conserved acid‐base sensor. Previously, sAC has been reported in dogfish shark and round ray gill cells, where they sense and counteract blood alkalosis by regulating the activity of V‐type H+‐ ATPase. Here, we report the presence of sAC protein in gill, rectal gland, cornea, intestine, white muscle, and heart of leopard shark Triakis semifasciata. Co‐expression of sAC with transmembrane adenylyl cyclases supports the presence of cAMP signaling microdomains. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry on tissue sections, and western blots and cAMP‐activity assays on nucleus‐enriched fractions demonstrate the presence of sAC protein in and around nuclei. These results suggest that sAC modulates multiple physiological processes in shark cells, including nuclear functions.