Capillary effects on wave breaking

TitleCapillary effects on wave breaking
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsDeike L., Popinet S., Melville W.K
JournalJournal of Fluid Mechanics
Volume769
Pagination541-569
Date Published2015/04
Type of ArticleArticle
ISBN Number0022-1120
Accession NumberWOS:000351869100023
Keywordsadaptive solver; air/sea interactions; crest instabilities; deep-water waves; energy-dissipation; flow-field; gentle spilling breakers; nonlinear gravity; steep gravity-waves; surface-waves; void-fraction measurements; wave breaking; waves/free-surface flows
Abstract

We investigate the influence of capillary effects on wave breaking through direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations for a two-phase air-water flow. A parametric study in terms of the Bond number, Bo, and the initial wave steepness, E, is performed at a relatively high Reynolds number. The onset of wave breaking as a function of these two parameters is determined and a phase diagram in terms of (is an element of, Bo) is presented that distinguishes between non-breaking gravity waves, parasitic capillaries on a gravity wave, spilling breakers and plunging breakers. At high Bond number, a critical steepness cc defines the onset of wave breaking At low Bond number, the influence of surface tension is quantified through two boundaries separating, first gravity-capillary waves and breakers, and second spilling and plunging breakers; both boundaries scaling as is an element of similar to (1 + Bo)(-1/3). Finally the wave energy dissipation is estimated for each wave regime and the influence of steepness and surface tension effects on the total wave dissipation is discussed. The breaking parameter b is estimated and is found to be in good agreement with experimental results for breaking waves. Moreover, the enhanced dissipation by parasitic capillaries is consistent with the dissipation due to breaking waves.

DOI10.1017/jfm.2015.103
Short TitleJ. Fluid Mech.
Student Publication: 
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