|Title||Carbon- and oxygen-stable isotopic signatures of methanogenesis, temperature, and water column stratification in Holocene siderite varves|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2014|
|Authors||Wittkop C., Teranes J., Lubenow B., Dean W.E|
|Type of Article||Article|
|Keywords||billion years ago; depositional environment; diagenetic siderite; dissolved inorganic carbon; Ferruginous lake; Iron formation; iron-formation; Lacustrine; meromictic lake; north-central minnesota; organic-matter; Siderite; south-africa; stable isotopes; supergroup; transvaal; Varves|
Manganoan siderite ([Fe,Mn]CO3) occurs in abundance of up to 19% (dry weight) as the sole endogenic carbonate within a succession of Holocene, organic-rich, varved sediments from freshwater Otter Lake (OL), Michigan. Radiocarbon dating and varve counts from a 7-m piston core constrain periods of major siderite accumulation to sediments older than 1200 cal yr BP. Sediment petrography suggests that siderite was a seasonal precipitate confined to the summer layer of the varve couplet. Bulk-sediment chemistry reveals cycles in abundance of manganese and aluminum coincident with centennial-scale cycles of siderite accumulation. Siderite delta C-13 and delta O-18 are enriched when the mineral is abundant and depleted when it is least abundant. Samples with high abundance of siderite precipitated in oxygen isotopic equilibrium with modern lake water, but are delta C-13 enriched relative to modern waters. Samples from intervals of low siderite abundance are delta C-13 and delta O-18 depleted relative to equilibrium with modern lake water. These data suggest that abundant siderite precipitation occurred when the OL water column was ferruginous (iron meromictic), allowing for enhanced ferrous iron concentrations and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) enriched in delta C-13 below the chemocline, where methanogenesis in waters and sediments influenced DIC composition. Seasonal siderite precipitation was triggered by water column alkalinity fluctuations driven by summer calcite dissolution. Manganese substitution in siderite lowered kinetic barriers to low-temperature mineral precipitation. Climate changes and basin filling influenced lake stratification and the rate of siderite precipitation. The siderite occurrence reported here displays remarkable similarity to its occurrence in Paleogene maar lake deposits, suggesting that further studies of Holocene lacustrine siderites may provide insight into ancient sedimentary systems and environments. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
|Short Title||Chem. Geol.|