Characterization of a New Protein Family Associated With the Silica Deposition Vesicle Membrane Enables Genetic Manipulation of Diatom Silica

TitleCharacterization of a New Protein Family Associated With the Silica Deposition Vesicle Membrane Enables Genetic Manipulation of Diatom Silica
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsTesson B, Lerch S.JL, Hildebrand M
JournalScientific Reports
Volume7
Date Published2017/10
Type of ArticleArticle
ISBN Number2045-2322
Accession NumberWOS:000413188400038
Keywordsbiosilica; cell-cycle; evolution; image-analysis; messenger-rna; metabolism; silaffins; silicification; thalassiosira-pseudonana bacillariophyceae; valve morphogenesis
Abstract

Diatoms are known for their intricate, silicified cell walls (frustules). Silica polymerization occurs in a compartment called the silica deposition vesicle (SDV) and it was proposed that the cytoskeleton influences silica patterning through the SDV membrane (silicalemma) via interactions with transmembrane proteins. In this work we identify a family of proteins associated with the silicalemma, named SAPs for Silicalemma Associated Proteins. The T. pseudonana SAPs (TpSAPs) are characterized by their motif organization; each contains a transmembrane domain, serine rich region and a conserved cytoplasmic domain. Fluorescent tagging demonstrated that two of the TpSAPs were localized to the silicalemma and that the intralumenal region of TpSAP3 remained embedded in the silica while the cytoplasmic region was cleaved. Knockdown lines of TpSAP1 and 3 displayed malformed valves; which confirmed their roles in frustule morphogenesis. This study provides the first demonstration of altering silica structure through manipulation of a single gene.

DOI10.1038/s41598-017-13613-8
Short TitleSci Rep
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