|Title||Characterizing the Climate Feedback Pattern in the NCAR CCSM3-SOM Using Hourly Data|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2014|
|Authors||Song X.L, Zhang GJ, Cai M|
|Journal||Journal of Climate|
|Type of Article||Article|
|Keywords||climate models; Climate sensitivity; cloud feedback; evaluation/performance; feedback; formulation; framework; general-circulation model; land; model; Regional effects; sensitivity; Surface temperature; system model|
The climate feedback-response analysis method (CFRAM) was applied to 10-yr hourly output of the NCAR Community Climate System Model, version 3, using the slab ocean model (CCSM3-SOM), to analyze the strength and spatial distribution of climate feedbacks and to characterize their contributions to the global and regional surface temperature T-s changes in response to a doubling of CO2. The global mean bias in the sum of partial T-s changes associated with the CO2 forcing, and each feedback derived with the CFRAM analysis is about 2% of T-s change obtained directly from the CCSM3-SOM simulations. The pattern correlation between the two is 0.94, indicating that the CFRAM analysis using hourly model output is accurate and thus is appropriate for quantifying the contributions of climate feedback to the formation of global and regional warming patterns. For global mean T-s, the largest contributor to the warming is water vapor feedback, followed by the direct CO2 forcing and albedo feedback. The albedo feedback exhibits the largest spatial variation, followed by shortwave cloud feedback. In terms of pattern correlation and RMS difference with the modeled global surface warming, longwave cloud feedback contributes the most. On zonal average, albedo feedback is the largest contributor to the stronger warming in high latitudes than in the tropics. The longwave cloud feedback further amplifies the latitudinal warming contrast. Both the land-ocean warming difference and contributions of climate feedbacks to it vary with latitude. Equatorward of 50 degrees, shortwave cloud feedback and dynamical advection are the two largest contributors. The land-ocean warming difference on the hemispheric scale is mainly attributable to longwave cloud feedback and convection.