Deep crustal cumulates reflect patterns of continental rift volcanism beneath Tanzania

TitleDeep crustal cumulates reflect patterns of continental rift volcanism beneath Tanzania
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsChin E.J
JournalContributions to Mineralogy and Petrology
Volume173
Date Published2018/10
Type of ArticleArticle
ISBN Number0010-7999
Accession NumberWOS:000445271800001
Keywordscontinental rift; cumulates; Deep crust; east-african rift; Geochemistry & Geophysics; isotopic evidence; lithospheric mantle beneath; magmatic processes; mineralogy; Mixing; northern tanzania; oceanic-crust; receiver functions; rio-grande rift; sierra-nevada; ultramafic complex
Abstract

Magmatism on Earth is most abundantly expressed by surface volcanic activity, but all volcanism has roots deep in the crust, lithosphere, and mantle. Intraplate magmatism, in particular, has remained enigmatic as the plate tectonic paradigm cannot easily explain phenomena such as large flood basalt provinces and lithospheric rupture within continental interiors. Here, I explore the role of deep crustal magmatic processes and their connection to continental rift volcanism as recorded in deep crustal xenoliths from northern Tanzania. The xenoliths are interpreted as magmatic cumulates related to Cenozoic rift volcanism, based on their undeformed, cumulate textures and whole-rock compositions distinct from melt-reacted peridotites. The cumulates define linear trends in terms of whole-rock major elements and mineralogically, can be represented as mixtures of olivine+clinopyroxene. AlphaMELTS modeling of geologically plausible parental melts shows that the end-member cumulates, clinopyroxenite and Fe-rich dunite, require fractionation from two distinct melts: a strongly diopside-normative melt and a fractionated picritic melt, respectively. The former can be linked to the earliest, strongly silica-undersaturated rift lavas sourced from melting of metasomatized lithosphere, whereas the latter is linked to the increasing contribution from the upwelling asthenospheric plume beneath East Africa. Thus, deep crustal cumulate systematics reflect temporal and compositional trends in rift volcanism, and show that mixing, required by the geochemistry of many rift lava suites, is also mirrored in the lavas' cumulates.

DOI10.1007/s00410-018-1512-z
Short TitleContrib. Mineral. Petrol.
Student Publication: 
No