Deep-diving sea lions exhibit extreme bradycardia in long-duration dives

TitleDeep-diving sea lions exhibit extreme bradycardia in long-duration dives
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2014
AuthorsMcDonald B.I, Ponganis P.J
JournalJournal of Experimental Biology
Volume217
Pagination1525-1534
Date Published2014/05
Type of ArticleArticle
ISBN Number0022-0949
Accession NumberWOS:000335583500022
Keywordsblood pressure; cardiac-output; Dive response; ECG; Electrocardiogram; elephant seals; emperor penguins; f(H); harbor seals; Heart rate; heart-rate; macaroni penguins; Otariid; oxygen-consumption; pinniped; Resting; weddell seals; zalophus-californianus
Abstract

Heart rate and peripheral blood flow distribution are the primary determinants of the rate and pattern of oxygen store utilisation and ultimately breath-hold duration in marine endotherms. Despite this, little is known about how otariids (sea lions and fur seals) regulate heart rate (f(H)) while diving. We investigated dive f(H) in five adult female California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) during foraging trips by instrumenting them with digital electrocardiogram (ECG) loggers and time depth recorders. In all dives, dive f(H) (number of beats/duration; 50 +/- 9 beats min(-1)) decreased compared with surface rates (113 +/- 5 beats min(-1)), with all dives exhibiting an instantaneous f(H) below resting (<54 beats min(-1)) at some point during the dive. Both dive f(H) and minimum instantaneous f(H) significantly decreased with increasing dive duration. Typical instantaneous f(H) profiles of deep dives (>100 m) consisted of: (1) an initial rapid decline in f(H) resulting in the lowest instantaneous f(H) of the dive at the end of descent, often below 10 beats min-1 in dives longer than 6 min in duration; (2) a slight increase in f(H) to similar to 10-40 beats min(-1) during the bottom portion of the dive; and (3) a gradual increase in f(H) during ascent with a rapid increase prior to surfacing. Thus, f(H) regulation in deep-diving sea lions is not simply a progressive bradycardia. Extreme bradycardia and the presumed associated reductions in pulmonary and peripheral blood flow during late descent of deep dives should (a) contribute to preservation of the lung oxygen store, (b) increase dependence of muscle on the myoglobin-bound oxygen store, (c) conserve the blood oxygen store and (d) help limit the absorption of nitrogen at depth. This f(H) profile during deep dives of sea lions may be characteristic of deep-diving marine endotherms that dive on inspiration as similar f(H) profiles have been recently documented in the emperor penguin, another deep diver that dives on inspiration.

DOI10.1242/jeb.098558
Short TitleJ. Exp. Biol.
Student Publication: 
No