|Title||Deep-water feeding and behavioral plasticity in Manta birostris revealed by archival tags and submersible observations|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2016|
|Authors||Stewart J.D, Hoyos-Padilla E.M, Kumli K.R, Rubin R.D|
|Type of Article||Article|
|Keywords||conservation; Deep scattering layer; devil; diving behavior; eastern tropical pacific; ecology; Foraging ecology; Manta birostris; Micronekton; mobulidae; phylogeny; vertical-distribution; Zooplankton|
Foraging drives many fundamental aspects of ecology, and an understanding of foraging behavior aids in the conservation of threatened species by identifying critical habitats and spatial patterns relevant to management. The world's largest ray, the oceanic manta (Manta birostris) is poorly studied and threatened globally by targeted fisheries and incidental capture. Very little information is available on the natural history, ecology and behavior of the species, complicating management efforts. This study provides the first data on the diving behavior of the species based on data returned from six tagged individuals, and an opportunistic observation from a submersible of a manta foraging at depth. Pop-off archival satellite tags deployed on mantas at the Revillagigedo Archipelago, Mexico recorded seasonal shifts in diving behavior, likely related to changes in the location and availability of zooplankton prey. Across seasons, mantas spent a large proportion of their time centered around the upper limit of the thermocline, where zooplankton often aggregate. Tag data reveal a gradual activity shift from surface waters to 100-150 m across the tagging period, possibly indicating a change in foraging behavior from targeting surface-associated zoo plankton to vertical migrators. The depth ranges accessed by mantas in this study carry variable bycatch risks from different fishing gear types. Consequently, region-specific data on diving behavior can help inform local management strategies that reduce or mitigate bycatch of this vulnerable species. (C) 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.