|Title||A double-difference method for high-resolution acoustic tracking using a deep-water vertical array|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2017|
|Authors||Tenorio-Halle L., Thode A.M, Sarkar J., Verlinden C., Tippmann J., Hodgkiss WS, Kuperman WA|
|Journal||Journal of the Acoustical Society of America|
|Type of Article||Article|
|Keywords||california; earthquakes; fault; gulf; hydrophone; locations; ocean; sperm-whales; whales physeter-macrocephalus|
Ray-tracing is typically used to estimate the depth and range of an acoustic source in refractive deep-water environments by exploiting multipath information on a vertical array. However, mismatched array inclination and uncertain environmental features can produce imprecise trajectories when ray-tracing sequences of individual acoustic events. "Double-difference" methods have previously been developed to determine fine-scale relative locations of earthquakes along a fault [Waldhauser and Ellsworth (2000). Bull. Seismolog. Soc. Am. 90, 1353-1368]. This technique translates differences in travel times between nearby seismic events, recorded at multiple widely separated stations, into precise relative displacements. Here, this method for acoustic multipath measurements on a single vertical array of hydrophones is reformulated. Changes over time in both the elevation angles and the relative arrival times of the multipath are converted into relative changes in source position. This approach is tested on data recorded on a 128-element vertical array deployed in 4 km deep water. The trajectory of a controlled towed acoustic source was accurately reproduced to within a few meters at nearly 50 km range. The positional errors of the double-difference approach for both the towed source and an opportunistically detected sperm whale are an order of magnitude lower than those produced from ray-tracing individual events. (C) 2017 Acoustical Society of America.