|Title||Eckmaxol, a phlorotannin extracted from ecklonia maxima, produces anti-ss-amyloid oligomer neuroprotective effects possibly via directly acting on glycogen synthase kinase 3 ss|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2018|
|Authors||Wang J.L, Zheng J.C, Huang C.H, Zhao J.Y, Lin JJ, Zhou X.Z, Naman C.B, Wang N., Gerwick WH, Wang Q.W, Yan X.J, Cui W., He S.|
|Type of Article||Article|
|Keywords||& Neurology; Alzheimer's disease; alzheimers-disease; beta oligomers; Biochemistry & Molecular Biology; brown alga; cells; diagnosis; Eckmaxol; fucoxanthin; h2o2-induced oxidative stress; ht22; induced cognitive impairments; neuroprotection; Neurosciences; oxidative stress; Pharmacology & Pharmacy; responses; ss-amyloid oligomer|
Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that mainly affects the elderly. Soluble ss-amyloid oligomer, which can induce neurotoxicity, is generally regarded as the main neurotoxin in Alzheimer's disease. Here we report that eckmaxol, a phlorotannin extracted from the brown alga Ecklonia maxima, could produce neuroprotective effects in SH-SY5Y cells. Eckmaxol effectively prevented but did not rescue ss-amyloid oligomer-induced neuronal apoptosis and increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Eckmaxol also significantly reversed the decreased expression of phospho-Ser9-glycogen synthase kinase 3 ss and increased expression of phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase, which was induced by A ss oligomer. Moreover, both glycogen synthase kinase 3 ss and mitogen activated protein kinase inhibitors produced neuroprotective effects in SH-SY5Y cells. Furthermore, eckmaxol showed favorable interaction in the ATP binding site of glycogen synthase kinase 3 ss and mitogen activated protein kinase. These results suggested that eckmaxol might produce neuroprotective effects via concurrent inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3 ss and extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathways, possibly via directly acting on glycogen synthase kinase 3 ss and mitogen activated protein kinase. Based on the central role that ss-amyloid oligomers play in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and the high annual production of Ecklonia maxima for alginate and other nutritional ingredients, this report represents a new candidate for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, and also expands the potential application of Ecklonia maxima and its constituents in the field of pharmacology.