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The effects of tectonic deformation and sediment allocation on shelf habitats and megabenthic distribution and diversity in southern California

TitleThe effects of tectonic deformation and sediment allocation on shelf habitats and megabenthic distribution and diversity in southern California
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsSwitzer RD, P. Parnell E, Leichter JL, Driscoll NW
JournalEstuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science
Date Published2016/02
ISBN Number0272-7714
KeywordsBenthos; habitat; patchiness; Seascape; Species diversity; Unmanned vehicles

Landscape and seascape structures are typically complex and manifest as patch mosaics within characteristic biomes, bordering one another in gradual or abrupt ecotones. The underlying patch structure in coastal shelf ecosystems is driven by the interaction of tectonic, sedimentary, and sea level dynamic processes. Animals and plants occupy and interact within these mosaics. Terrestrial landscape ecological studies have shown that patch structure is important for ecological processes such as foraging, connectivity, predation, and species dynamics. The importance of patch structure for marine systems is less clear because far fewer pattern-process studies have been conducted in these systems. For many coastal shelf systems, there is a paucity of information on how species occupy shelf seascapes, particularly for seascapes imbued with complex patch structure and ecotones that are common globally due to tectonic activity. Here, we present the results of a study conducted along a myriameter-scale gradient of bottom and sub-bottom geological forcing altered by tectonic deformation, sea level transgression and sediment allocation. The resulting seascape is dominated by unconsolidated sediments throughout, but also exhibits increasing density and size of outcropping patches along a habitat patch gradient forced by the erosion of a sea level transgressive surface that has been deformed and tilted by tectonic forcing. A combination of sub-bottom profiling, multibeam bathymetry, and ROV surveys of the habitats and the demersal megafauna occupying the habitats indicate (1) significant beta diversity along this gradient, (2) biological diversity does not scale with habitat diversity, and (3) species occupy the patches disproportionately (non-linearly) with regard to the proportional availability of their preferred habitats. These results indicate that shelf habitat patch structure modulates species specific processes and interactions with other species. Further studies are needed to examine experimentally the mechanics of how patch structure modulates ecological processes in shelf systems. Our results also provide further support for including multiple spatial scales of patch structure for the application of remote habitat sensing as a surrogate for biological community structure.

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