|Title||Entrainment of air at the transoms of full-scale surface ships|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2015|
|Authors||Terrill E.J, Taylor G.RL|
|Journal||Journal of Ship Research|
|Type of Article||Article|
|Keywords||air entrainment; breaking waves; bubbles; model; sea-surface; ship wakes; void fraction; wakes|
We report on the results from a series of full-scale trials designed to quantify the air entrainment at the stern of an underway vessel. While an extremely complex region to model air entrainment due to the confluence of the breaking transom wave, bubbles from the bow, turbulence from the hull boundary layer, and bubbles and turbulence from propellers, the region is a desirable area to characterize and understand because it serves as the initial conditions of a ship's far-field bubbly wake. Experiments were conducted in 2003 from RN Revel le and 2004 from RN Athena II using a custom-built conductivity probe vertical array that could be deployed at the blunt transom of a full-scale surface ship to measure the void fraction field. The system was designed to be rugged enough to withstand the full speed range of the vessels. From the raw time-series data, the entrainment of air at speeds ranging from 2.1 to 7.2 m/s is computed at various depths and beam locations. The data represent the first such in-situ measurements from a full-scale vessel and can be used to validate two-phase ship hydrodynamic CFD codes and initialize far-field, bubbly wake CFD models.