|Title||Genomic evidence for ecological divergence against a background of population homogeneity in the marine snail Chlorostoma funebralis|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2016|
|Authors||Gleason L.U, Burton RS|
|Type of Article||Article|
|Keywords||adaptation; climate-change; ecological divergence; genetic-structure; heat-stress; Intertidal; larval dispersal; littorina-saxatilis; local; mammalian stress granules; mollusc; natural-selection; prosobranchia-trochidae; RAD sequencing; rocky; tegula-funebralis|
The balance between natural selection, gene flow and genetic drift is difficult to resolve in marine invertebrates with extensive dispersal and fluctuating population sizes. The intertidal snail Chlorostoma funebralis has planktonic larvae and previous work using mtDNA polymorphism reported no genetic population structure. Nevertheless, recent studies have documented differences in thermal tolerance and transcriptomic responses to heat stress between northern and southern California, USA, populations. To gain insight into the dynamics influencing adaptive divergence, we used double-digest restriction site-associated DNA (ddRAD) sequencing to identify 1861 genomewide, quality-filtered single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci for C.funebralis collected from three northern and three southern California sites (15 individuals per population). Considering all SNPs, there was no evidence for genetic differentiation among populations or regions (average F-ST=0.0042). However, outlier tests revealed 34 loci putatively under divergent selection between northern and southern populations, and structure and SNP tree analyses based on these outliers show clear genetic differentiation between geographic regions. Three of these outliers are known or hypothesized to be involved in stress granule formation, a response to environmental stress such as heat. Combined with previous work that found thermally tolerant southern populations show high baseline expression of stress response genes, these results further suggest that thermal stress is a strong selective pressure across C.funebralis populations. Overall, this study increases our understanding of the factors constraining local adaptation in marine organisms, while suggesting that ecologically driven, strong differentiation can occur at relevant loci in a species with planktonic larvae.
|Short Title||Mol. Ecol.|