|Title||Guanitoxin, re-naming a cyanobacterial organophosphate toxin|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2020|
|Authors||Fiore M.F, de Lima S.T, Carmichael W.W, McKinnie S.MK, Chekan J.R, Moore BS|
|Type of Article||Article|
|Keywords||1st report; anabaena-flos-aquae; Anatoxin; anatoxin-a; anticholinesterase; biosynthesis; cyanobacteria; Harmful algal bloom; homoanatoxin-a; Marine & Freshwater Biology; Neurotoxin; pharmacology; poisonings; river|
Anatoxin-a(S) is the most potent natural neurotoxin produced by fresh water cyanobacteria. It is also the least understood and monitored. Although this potent cholinesterase inhibitor was first reported in the 1970s and connected with animal poisonings, the lack of chemical standards and identified biosynthetic genes together with limited diagnostics and acute reactivity of this naturally-occurring organophosphate have limited our understanding of its environmental breadth and human health implications. Anatoxin-a(S) irreversibly inhibits acetylcholinesterase much like other organophosphate agents like paraoxon. It is however often confused with the similarly named anatoxin-a that has a completely different chemical structure, mechanism of action, and biosynthesis. Herein we propose renaming of anatoxin-a(S) to clarify its distinct structure and mechanism and to draw renewed attention to this potent natural poison. We propose the new name guanitoxin (GNT) to emphasize its distinctive guanidino organophosphate chemical structure.