Heart rate regulation in diving sea lions: the vagus nerve rules

TitleHeart rate regulation in diving sea lions: the vagus nerve rules
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsPonganis P.J, McDonald B.I, Tift M.S, Williams C.L
JournalJournal of Experimental Biology
Volume220
Pagination1372-1381
Date Published2017/04
Type of ArticleArticle
ISBN Number0022-0949
Accession NumberWOS:000399670800005
Keywordsautonomic control; blood-flow; cardiac-output; cardiovascular-responses; central command; dive; Dive response; dynamic exercise; exercise pressor reflex; harbor seal; Heart rate; Parasympathetic; Sympathetic; Vagus nerve; zalophus-californianus
Abstract

Recent publications have emphasized the potential generation of morbid cardiac arrhythmias secondary to autonomic conflict in diving marine mammals. Such conflict, as typified by cardiovascular responses to cold water immersion in humans, has been proposed to result from exercise-related activation of cardiac sympathetic fibers to increase heart rate, combined with depth-related changes in parasympathetic tone to decrease heart rate. After reviewing the marine mammal literature and evaluating heart rate profiles of diving California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), we present an alternative interpretation of heart rate regulation that de-emphasizes the concept of autonomic conflict and the risk of morbid arrhythmias in marine mammals. We hypothesize that: (1) both the sympathetic cardiac accelerator fibers and the peripheral sympathetic vasomotor fibers are activated during dives even without exercise, and their activities are elevated at the lowest heart rates in a dive when vasoconstriction is maximal, (2) in diving animals, parasympathetic cardiac tone via the vagus nerve dominates over sympathetic cardiac tone during all phases of the dive, thus producing the bradycardia, (3) adjustment in vagal activity, which may be affected by many inputs, including exercise, is the primary regulator of heart rate and heart rate fluctuations during diving, and (4) heart beat fluctuations (benign arrhythmias) are common in marine mammals. Consistent with the literature and with these hypotheses, we believe that the generation of morbid arrhythmias because of exercise or stress during dives is unlikely in marine mammals.

DOI10.1242/jeb.146779
Short TitleJ. Exp. Biol.
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