|Title||Impact of Typhoons on the Ocean in the Pacific|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2013|
|Authors||D'Asaro EA, Black PG, Centurioni LR, Chang YT, Chen S.S, Foster R.C, Graber H.C, Harr P., Hormann V., Lien RC, Lin I.I, Sanford TB, Tang T.Y, Wu C.C|
|Journal||Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society|
Tropical cyclones (TCs) change the ocean by mixing deeper water into the surface layers, by the direct air?sea exchange of moisture and heat from the sea surface, and by inducing currents, surface waves, and waves internal to the ocean. In turn, the changed ocean influences the intensity of the TC, primarily through the action of surface waves and of cooler surface temperatures that modify the air?sea fluxes. The Impact of Typhoons on the Ocean in the Pacific (ITOP) program made detailed measurements of three different TCs (i.e., typhoons) and their interaction with the ocean in the western Pacific. ITOP coordinated meteorological and oceanic observations from aircraft and satellites with deployments of autonomous oceanographic instruments from the aircraft and from ships. These platforms and instruments measured typhoon intensity and structure, the underlying ocean structure, and the long-term recovery of the ocean from the storms' effects with a particular emphasis on the cooling of the ocean beneath the storm and the resulting cold wake. Initial results show how different TCs create very different wakes, whose strength and properties depend most heavily on the nondimensional storm speed. The degree to which air?sea fluxes in the TC core were reduced by ocean cooling varied greatly. A warm layer formed over and capped the cold wakes within a few days, but a residual cold subsurface layer persisted for 10?30 days.
|Short Title||Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc.|