Impact of Typhoons on the Ocean in the Pacific

TitleImpact of Typhoons on the Ocean in the Pacific
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsD'Asaro EA, Black PG, Centurioni LR, Chang YT, Chen S.S, Foster R.C, Graber H.C, Harr P., Hormann V., Lien RC, Lin I.I, Sanford TB, Tang T.Y, Wu C.C
JournalBulletin of the American Meteorological Society
Date Published2014/09
ISBN Number0003-0007

Tropical cyclones (TCs) change the ocean by mixing deeper water into the surface layers, by the direct air?sea exchange of moisture and heat from the sea surface, and by inducing currents, surface waves, and waves internal to the ocean. In turn, the changed ocean influences the intensity of the TC, primarily through the action of surface waves and of cooler surface temperatures that modify the air?sea fluxes. The Impact of Typhoons on the Ocean in the Pacific (ITOP) program made detailed measurements of three different TCs (i.e., typhoons) and their interaction with the ocean in the western Pacific. ITOP coordinated meteorological and oceanic observations from aircraft and satellites with deployments of autonomous oceanographic instruments from the aircraft and from ships. These platforms and instruments measured typhoon intensity and structure, the underlying ocean structure, and the long-term recovery of the ocean from the storms' effects with a particular emphasis on the cooling of the ocean beneath the storm and the resulting cold wake. Initial results show how different TCs create very different wakes, whose strength and properties depend most heavily on the nondimensional storm speed. The degree to which air?sea fluxes in the TC core were reduced by ocean cooling varied greatly. A warm layer formed over and capped the cold wakes within a few days, but a residual cold subsurface layer persisted for 10?30 days.

Short TitleBull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc.
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