Infrasonic crackle and supersonic jet noise from the eruption of Nabro Volcano, Eritrea

TitleInfrasonic crackle and supersonic jet noise from the eruption of Nabro Volcano, Eritrea
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsFee D, Matoza RS, Gee K.L, Neilsen T.B, Ogden D.E
JournalGeophysical Research Letters
Date Published2013/08
Type of ArticleArticle
ISBN Number0094-8276
Accession NumberWOS:000324529000014
Keywordsaircraft; crackle; infrasound; Nabro; nonlinearity; propagation; range; supersonic; transport; volcanic jet

The lowermost portion of an explosive volcanic eruption column is considered a momentum-driven jet. Understanding volcanic jets is critical for determining eruption column dynamics and mitigating volcanic hazards; however, volcanic jets are inherently difficult to observe due to their violence and opacity. Infrasound from the 2011 eruption of Nabro Volcano, Eritrea has waveform features highly similar to the crackle phenomenon uniquely produced by man-made supersonic jet engines and rockets and is characterized by repeated asymmetric compressions followed by weaker, gradual rarefactions. This infrasonic crackle indicates that infrasound source mechanisms in sustained volcanic eruptions are strikingly similar to jet noise sources from heated, supersonic jet engines and rockets, suggesting that volcanologists can utilize the modeling and physical understandings of man-made jets to understand volcanic jets. The unique, distinctive infrasonic crackle from Nabro highlights the use of infrasound to remotely detect and characterize hazardous eruptions and its potential to determine volcanic jet parameters.

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