|Title||Ingestion of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus by the mixotrophic red tide ciliate Mesodinium rubrum|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2015|
|Authors||Yoo Y.D, Seong K.A, Myung G., Kim H.S, Jeong H.J, Palenik B, Yih W.|
|Type of Article||Article|
|Keywords||atlantic-ocean; chroococcoid cyanobacteria; cryptomonad prey; dinophysis; grazing impact; growth; ingestion; marine; Mesodinium; Mixotrophy; myrionecta-rubra; phytoplankton; Prochlorococcus; size; Synechococcus|
We explored phagotrophy of the phototrophic ciliate Mesodinium rubrum on the cyanobacterium Synechococcus. The ingestion and clearance rates of M. rubrum on Synechococcus as a function of prey concentration were measured. In addition, we calculated grazing coefficients by combining the field data on abundance of M. rubrum and co-occurring Synechococcus spp. with laboratory data on ingestion rates. The ingestion rate of M. rubrum on Synechococcus sp. linearly increased with increasing prey concentrations up to approximately 1.9 x 10(6) cells mL(-1), to exhibit sigmoidal saturation at higher concentrations. The maximum ingestion and clearance rates of M. rubrum on Synechococcus were 2.1 cells predator(-1) h(-1) and 4.2 nL predator(-1)h(-1), respectively. The calculated grazing coefficients attributable to M. rubrum on co-occurring Synechococcus spp. reached 0.04 day(-1). M. rubrum could thus sometimes be an effective protistan grazer of Synechococcus in marine planktonic food webs. M. rubrum might also be able to form recurrent and massive blooms in diverse marine environments supported by the unique and complex mixotrophic arrays including phagotrphy on hetrotrophic bacteria and Synecho coccus as well as digestion, kleptoplastidy and karyoklepty after the ingestion of cryptophyte prey.