Intensity statistics of very high frequency sound scattered from wind-driven waves

TitleIntensity statistics of very high frequency sound scattered from wind-driven waves
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsWalstead SP, Deane GB
JournalJournal of the Acoustical Society of America
Volume139
Pagination2784-2796
Date Published2016/05
Type of ArticleArticle
ISBN Number0001-4966
Accession NumberWOS:000377715100060
Keywordsfield; profiles; reflected acoustic pulses; rough-surface; scintillation index; sea-surface
Abstract

The interaction of vhf 100-1000 kHz underwater sound with the ocean surface is explored. The bistatic forward scatter of 300 kHz sound is measured in a wind driven wave channel. Fluctuations in arrival amplitude are described by the scintillation index (SI) which is a measure of arrival intensity variance. SI initially increases with wind speed but eventually saturates to a value of 0.5 when the root-mean-square (rms) roughness is 0.5 mm. An adjusted scintillation index (SI*) is suggested that accounts for the multiple arrivals and properly saturates to a value of 1. Fluctuations in arrival time do not saturate and increase proportionately to the dominant surface wave component. Forward scattering is modeled at frequencies ranging from 50 to 2000 kHz using the Helmholtz-Kirchhoff integral with surface wave realizations derived from wave gauge data. The amplitude and temporal statistics of the simulated scattering agree well with measured data. Intensity saturation occurs at lower wind speeds for higher frequency sound. Both measured and modeled vhf sound is characterized by many surface arrivals at saturation. Doppler shifts associated with wave motion are expected to vary rapidly for vhf sound however further analysis is required. (C) 2016 Acoustical Society of America.

DOI10.1121/1.4948449
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