|Title||Interannual variability of summer surface air temperature over central India: Implications for monsoon onset|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2019|
|Authors||Zhou ZQ, Zhang R.H, Xie SP|
|Journal||Journal of Climate|
|Type of Article||Article|
|Keywords||annual cycle; Atmosphere-ocean interaction; climate; el-nino; enso; impact; interannual variability; Meteorology & Atmospheric Sciences; Monsoons; objective definition; ocean capacitor; rainfall; seasonal predictability; south-asia; Surface temperature; western pacific|
Year-to-year variability of surface air temperature (SAT) over central India is most pronounced in June. Climatologically over central India, SAT peaks in May, and the transition from the hot premonsoon to the cooler monsoon period takes place around 9 June, associated with the northeastward propagation of intraseasonal convective anomalies from the western equatorial Indian Ocean. Positive (negative) SAT anomalies during June correspond to a delayed (early) Indian summer monsoon onset and tend to occur during post-El Nino summers. On the interannual time scale, positive SAT anomalies of June over central India are associated with positive SST anomalies over both the equatorial eastern-central Pacific and Indian Oceans, representing El Nino effects in developing and decay years, respectively. Although El Nino peaks in winter, the correlations between winter El Nino and Indian SAT peak in the subsequent June, representing a post-El Nino summer capacitor effect associated with positive SST anomalies over the north Indian Ocean. These results have important implications for the prediction of Indian summer climate including both SAT and summer monsoon onset over central India.