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Mare basalt meteorites, magnesian-suite rocks and KREEP reveal loss of zinc during and after lunar formation

TitleMare basalt meteorites, magnesian-suite rocks and KREEP reveal loss of zinc during and after lunar formation
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2020
AuthorsDay JMD, van Kooten E, Hofmann B.A, Moynier F.
Date Published2020/02
Type of ArticleArticle
ISBN Number0012-821X
Accession NumberWOS:000510947100046
KeywordsAbundances; chemical-model; early history; earth; evaporation; fractionation; Geochemistry & Geophysics; isotopic composition; KREEP; magnesian-suite; mare basalts; Moon; origin; Volatile loss; zinc; zn

Isotopic compositions of reservoirs in the Moon can be constrained from analysis of rocks generated during lunar magmatic differentiation. Mare basalts sample the largest lunar mantle volume, from olivine- and pyroxene-rich cumulates, whereas ferroan anorthosites and magnesian-suite rocks represent early crustal materials. Incompatible element enriched rocks, known as 'KREEP,' probably preserve evidence for the last highly differentiated melts. Here we show that mare basalts, including Apollo samples and meteorites, have remarkably consistent delta Zn-66 values (+1.4 +/- 0.2 parts per thousand) and Zn abundances (1.5 +/- 0.4 ppm). Analyses of magnesian-suite rocks show them to be characterized by even heavier delta Zn-66 values (2.5 to 9.3 parts per thousand) and low Zn concentrations. KREEP-rich impact melt breccia Sayh al Uhaymir 169 has a nearly identical Zn composition to mare basalts (delta Zn-66 =1.3 parts per thousand) and a low Zn abundance (0.5 ppm). Much of this variation can be explained through progressive depletion of Zn and preferential loss of the light isotopes in response to evaporative fractionation processes during a lunar magma ocean. Samples with isotopically light Zn can be explained by either direct condensation or mixing and contamination processes at the lunar surface. The delta Zn-66 of Sayh al Uhaymir 169 is probably compromised by mixing processes of KREEP with mafic components. Correlations of Zn with Cl isotopes suggest that the urKREEP reservoir should be isotopically heavy with respect to Zn, like magnesian-suite rocks. Current models to explain how and when Zn and other volatile elements were lost from the Moon include nebular processes, prior to lunar formation, and planetary processes, either during giant impact, or magmatic differentiation. Our results provide unambiguous evidence for the latter process. Notwithstanding, with the currently available volatile stable isotope datasets, it is difficult to discount if the Moon lost its volatiles relative to Earth either during giant impact or exclusively from later magmatic differentiation. If the Moon did begin initially volatile-depleted, then the mare basalt delta Zn-66 value likely preserves the signature, and the Moon lost 96% of its Zn inventory relative to Earth and was also characterized by isotopically heavy Cl (delta Cl-37 = >= 8 parts per thousand). Alternative loss mechanisms, including erosive impact removing a steam atmosphere need to be examined in detail, but nebular processes of volatile loss do not appear necessary to explain lunar and terrestrial volatile inventories. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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