|Title||A mesocosm double feature: Insights into the chemical makeup of marine ice nucleating particles|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2018|
|Authors||McCluskey C.S, Hill T.CJ, Sultana C.M, Laskina O., Trueblood J., Santander M.V, Beall C.M, Michaud J.M, Kreidenweis S.M, Prather KA, Grassian V., DeMott PJ|
|Journal||Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences|
|Type of Article||Article|
|Keywords||active bacteria; Aerosol indirect effect; Aerosol-cloud; air; alcohols; amphiphilic; atmospheric; chemistry; interaction; Marine chemistry; mass-spectrometry; Meteorology & Atmospheric Sciences; nuclei; organic-matter; sea spray aerosol; southern-ocean; surface microlayer; water-interface|
The abundance of atmospheric ice nucleating particles (INPs) is a source of uncertainty for numerical representation of ice-phase transitions in mixed-phase clouds. While sea spray aerosol (SSA) exhibits less ice nucleating (IN) ability than terrestrial aerosol, marine INP emissions are linked to oceanic biological activity and are potentially an important source of INPs over remote oceans. Inadequate knowledge of marine INP identity limits the ability to parameterize this complex INP source. A previous manuscript described abundances of marine INPs in relation to several aerosol composition and ocean biology observations during two laboratory mesocosm experiments. In this study, the abundances and chemical and physical properties of INPs found during the same mesocosm experiments were directly probed in SSA, seawater, and surface microlayer samples. Two unique marine INP populations were found: 1) dissolved organic carbon INPs are suggested to be composed of IN-active molecules, and 2) particulate organic carbon INPs are attributed as intact cells or IN-active microbe fragments. Both marine INP types are likely to be emitted into SSA following decay of phytoplankton biomass when 1) the surface microlayer is significantly enriched with exudates and cellular detritus and SSA particles are preferentially coated with IN-active molecules or 2) diatom fragments and bacteria are relatively abundant in seawater and therefore more likely transferred into SSA. These findings inform future efforts for incorporating marine INP emissions into numerical models and motivate future studies to quantify specific marine molecules and isolate phytoplankton, bacteria, and other species that contribute to these marine INP types.