|Title||Molecular phylogeny of sea-skaters (Halobates Eschscholtz, 1822), relationship between Halobatini and Metrocorini, and a catalogue of the subfamily Halobatinae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Gerridae)|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2020|
|Authors||Roman-Palacios C., Damgaard J., Cheng L., Moreira F.FF, Ikawa T., Weir T.A, Zettel H.|
|Type of Article||Article|
|Keywords||aquatic bugs; catalogue; Entomology; Evolutionary Biology; geographical-distribution; Gerridae; gerromorpha insecta hemiptera; Halobatinae; heteroptera; marine insects; molecular phylogeny; radioactive cadmium; semiaquatic bugs; separate populations; sericeus heteroptera; species; systematics; territorial behavior; water striders heteroptera|
We investigated the phylogenetic relationships among seven of the ten Halobatinae genera (Heteroptera: Gerridae) based on COI+II, 16S rRNA, and 28S rRNA genes. Our analyses recovered monophyly of Halobatinae, and suggested paraphyly of Metrocorini caused by the position of Ventidius and Esakia. Since our phylogenies did not infer monophyly of the subgenus Halobates (s.str.) within Halobatini, we synonymized Austrobates and Halobates (Hilliella) with Halobates. We confirmed that (1) the limnic lifestyle of Metrocorini was ancestral in Halobatinae, (2) the marine lifestyle evolved only once in the common ancestor of Aselepios + Halobates, (3) the limnic lifestyle of some members of Halobates was independently derived from marine ancestors, and that (4) the open ocean was colonized at least three times in Halobates. A catalogue of Halobatinae organized according to an updated classification is presented, including all known geographic distributions, bibliographical references, and additional notes to all species of the subfamily.