|Title||Nonlinear time-warping made simple: A step-by-step tutorial on underwater acoustic modal separation with a single hydrophone|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2020|
|Authors||Bonnel J., Thode A, Wright D., Chapman R.|
|Type of Article||Article|
|Keywords||acoustics; attenuation; Audiology & Speech-Language Pathology; geoacoustic inversion; localization; parameters; range estimation; receiver; sea-bottom; shallow-water; transform; variability|
Classical ocean acoustic experiments involve the use of synchronized arrays of sensors. However, the need to cover large areas and/or the use of small robotic platforms has evoked interest in single-hydrophone processing methods for localizing a source or characterizing the propagation environment. One such processing method is "warping," a non-linear, physics-based signal processing tool dedicated to decomposing multipath features of low-frequency transient signals (frequency f < 500 Hz), after their propagation through shallow water (depth D < 200 m) and their reception on a distant single hydrophone (range r > 1 km). Since its introduction to the underwater acoustics community in 2010, warping has been adopted in the ocean acoustics literature, mostly as a pre-processing method for single receiver geoacoustic inversion. Warping also has potential applications in other specialties, including bioacoustics; however, the technique can be daunting to many potential users unfamiliar with its intricacies. Consequently, this tutorial article covers basic warping theory, presents simulation examples, and provides practical experimental strategies. Accompanying supplementary material provides matlab code and simulated and experimental datasets for easy implementation of warping on both impulsive and frequency-modulated signals from both biotic and man-made sources. This combined material should provide interested readers with user-friendly resources for implementing warping methods into their own research.