Novel Psychropiezophilic oceanospirillales species Profundimonas piezophila gen. nov., sp nov., isolated from the deep-sea environment of the Puerto Rico Trench

TitleNovel Psychropiezophilic oceanospirillales species Profundimonas piezophila gen. nov., sp nov., isolated from the deep-sea environment of the Puerto Rico Trench
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2014
AuthorsCao Y., Chastain R.A, Eloe E.A, Nogi Y., Kato C., Bartlett DH
JournalApplied and Environmental Microbiology
Volume80
Pagination54-60
Date Published2014/01
Type of ArticleArticle
ISBN Number0099-2240
Accession NumberWOS:000328851400005
Keywordsbacterium; eicosapentaenoic acid; high-pressure; hydrostatic-pressures; low-temperature; mariana trench; neptunomonas; osedax; profundum ss9; shewanella-violacea
Abstract

The diversity of deep-sea high-pressure-adapted (piezophilic) microbes in isolated monoculture remains low. In this study, a novel obligately psychropiezophilic bacterium was isolated from seawater collected from the Puerto Rico Trench at a depth of similar to 6,000 m. This isolate, designated YC-1, grew best in a nutrient-rich marine medium, with an optimal growth hydrostatic pressure of 50 MPa (range, 20 to 70 MPa) at 8 degrees C. Under these conditions, the maximum growth rate was extremely slow, 0.017 h(-1), and the maximum yield was 3.51 X 10(7) cells ml(-1). Cell size and shape changed with pressure, shifting from 4.0 to 5.0 mu m in length and 0.5 to 0.8 mu m in width at 60 MPa to 0.8-to 1.0-mu m diameter coccoid cells under 20 MPa, the minimal pressure required for growth. YC-1 is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic heterotroph. Its predominant cellular fatty acids are the monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) C-16:1 and C-18:1 Unlike many other psychropiezophiles, YC-1 does not synthesize any polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Phylogenetic analysis placed YC-1 within the family of Oceanospirillaceae, closely related to the uncultured symbiont of the deep-sea whale bone-eating worms of the genus Osedax. In common with some other members of the Oceanospirillales, including those enriched during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, YC-1 is capable of hydrocarbon utilization. On the basis of its characteristics, YC-1 appears to represent both a new genus and a new species, which we name Profundimonas piezophila gen. nov., sp. nov.

DOI10.1128/aem.02288-13
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