|Title||A numerical comparison of time and frequency-domain marine electromagnetic methods for hydrocarbon exploration in shallow water|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2013|
|Authors||Connell D, Key K|
|Type of Article||Article|
|Keywords||ave ad, 1982, journal of geophysical research, v87, p5327; csem surveys; filters; gulf-of-mexico; insights; magnetotellurics; Marine CSEM, Marine Electromagnetics, Resistivity, Resolution, Uncertainty; oceans; petroleum-exploration; system; transforms; wave-forms|
In shallow water the frequency domain controlled source electromagnetic method is subject to airwave saturation that strongly limits the sensitivity to resistive hydrocarbon targets at depth. It has been suggested that time-domain CSEM may offer an improved sensitivity and resolution of these deep targets in the presence of the airwave. In order to examine and test these claims, this work presents a side-by-side investigation of both methods with a main focus on practical considerations, and how these effect the resolution of a hydrocarbon reservoir. Synthetic noisy data for both time-domain and frequency domain methods are simulated using a realistic frequency dependent noise model and frequency dependent scaling for representative source waveforms. The synthetic data studied here include the frequency domain response from a compact broadband waveform, the time-domain step-response from a low-frequency square wave and the time-domain impulse response obtained from pseudo-random binary sequences. These data are used in a systematic resolution study of each method as a function of water-depth, relative noise and stacking length. The results indicate that the broadband frequency domain data have the best resolution for a given stacking time, whereas the time-domain data require prohibitively longer stacking times to achieve similar resolution.
|Short Title||Geophys. Prospect.|