|Title||Ontogenetic changes in cutaneous and branchial ionocytes and morphology in yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) larvae|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2019|
|Authors||Kwan G.T, Wexler J.B, Wegner NC, Tresguerres M|
|Type of Article||Article|
|Keywords||acid-base regulation; Chloride cell; chloride cells; european sea bass; fish; fish larvae; fresh-water; gill; Gill morphology; ion-transport; Ionocyte; mitochondria-rich cells; Mitochondrion-rich cell; oreochromis-mossambicus; Osmoregulation; physiology; ram ventilation; yolk-sac membrane; zoology|
The development of osmoregulatory and gas exchange organs was studied in larval yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) from 2 to 25 days post-hatching (2.9-24.5mm standard length, SL). Cutaneous and branchial ionocytes were identified using Na+/K+-ATPase immunostaining and scanning electron microscopy. Cutaneous ionocyte abundance significantly increased with SL, but a reduction in ionocyte size and density resulted in asignificant decrease in relative ionocyte area. Cutaneous ionocytes in preflexion larvae had a wide apical opening with extended microvilli; however, microvilli retracted into an apical pit from flexion onward. Lamellae in the gill and pseudobranch were first detected 3.3mm SL. Ionocytes were always present on the gill arch, first appeared in the filaments and lamellae of the pseudobranch at 3.4mm SL, and later in gill filaments at 4.2mm SL, but were never observed in the gill lamellae. Unlike the cutaneous ionocytes, gill and pseudobranch ionocytes had a wide apical opening with extended microvilli throughout larval development. The interlamellar fusion, a specialized gill structure binding the lamellae of ram-ventilating fish, began forming by 24.5mm SL and contained ionocytes, a localization never before reported. Ionocytes were retained on the lamellar fusions and also found on the filament fusions of larger sub-adult yellowfin tuna; however, sub-adult gill ionocytes had apical pits. These results indicate a shift in gas exchange and NaCl secretion from the skin to branchial organs around the flexion stage, and reveal novel aspects of ionocyte localization and morphology in ram-ventilating fishes.