Overview: Precipitation characteristics and sensitivities to environmental conditions during GoAmazon2014/5 and ACRIDICON-CHUVA

TitleOverview: Precipitation characteristics and sensitivities to environmental conditions during GoAmazon2014/5 and ACRIDICON-CHUVA
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsMachado L.AT, Calheiros A.JP, Biscaro T., Giangrande S., Dias M, Cecchini M.A, Albrecht R., Andreae M.O, Araujo W.F, Artaxo P., Borrmann S., Braga R., Burleyson C., Eichholz C.W, Fan J.W, Feng Z., Fisch G.F, Jensen M.P, Martin S.T, Poschl U., Pohlker C., Pohlker M.L, Ribaud J.F, Rosenfeld D, Saraiva J.MB, Schumacher C., Thalman R., Walter D., Wendisch M.
JournalAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics
Volume18
Pagination6461-6482
Date Published2018/05
Type of ArticleArticle
ISBN Number1680-7316
Accession NumberWOS:000431588500005
Keywordsboundary-layer; cloud condensation nuclei; coastal squall lines; diurnal-variation; goamazon2014/5; mesoscale convective systems; Meteorology & Atmospheric Sciences; microphysical properties; ocean amazon; regional variability; size distribution; weather radar
Abstract

This study provides an overview of precipitation processes and their sensitivities to environmental conditions in the Central Amazon Basin near Manaus during the GoAmazon2014/5 and ACRIDICON-CHUVA experiments. This study takes advantage of the numerous measurement platforms and instrument systems operating during both campaigns to sample cloud structure and environmental conditions during 2014 and 2015; the rainfall variability among seasons, aerosol loading, land surface type, and topography has been carefully characterized using these data. Differences between the wet and dry seasons were examined from a variety of perspectives. The rainfall rates distribution, total amount of rainfall, and raindrop size distribution (the mass-weighted mean diameter) were quantified over both seasons. The dry season generally exhibited higher rainfall rates than the wet season and included more intense rainfall periods. However, the cumulative rainfall during the wet season was 4 times greater than that during the total dry season rainfall, as shown in the total rainfall accumulation data. The typical size and life cycle of Amazon cloud clusters (observed by satellite) and rain cells (observed by radar) were examined, as were differences in these systems between the seasons. Moreover, monthly mean thermodynamic and dynamic variables were analysed using radiosondes to elucidate the differences in rainfall characteristics during the wet and dry seasons. The sensitivity of rainfall to atmospheric aerosol loading was discussed with regard to mass-weighted mean diameter and rain rate. This topic was evaluated only dur- ing the wet season due to the insignificant statistics of rainfall events for different aerosol loading ranges and the low frequency of precipitation events during the dry season. The impacts of aerosols on cloud droplet diameter varied based on droplet size. For the wet season, we observed no dependence between land surface type and rain rate. However, during the dry season, urban areas exhibited the largest rainfall rate tail distribution, and deforested regions exhibited the lowest mean rainfall rate. Airplane measurements were taken to characterize and contrast cloud microphysical properties and processes over forested and deforested regions. Vertical motion was not correlated with cloud droplet sizes, but cloud droplet concentration correlated linearly with vertical motion. Clouds over forested areas contained larger droplets than clouds over pastures at all altitudes. Finally, the connections between topography and rain rate were evaluated, with higher rainfall rates identified at higher elevations during the dry season.

DOI10.5194/acp-18-6461-2018
Short TitleAtmos. Chem. Phys.
Student Publication: 
No