|Title||Plasma kallikrein cleaves and inactivates apelin-17: Palmitoyl- and PEG-extended apelin-17 analogs as metabolically stable blood pressure-lowering agents|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2019|
|Authors||Fischer C., Lamer T., Wang W., McKinnie S.MK, Iturrioz X., Llorens-Cortes C., Oudit G.Y, Vederas JC|
|Type of Article||Article|
|Keywords||Apelin; Cardiovascular disease; impact; neprilysin; Peptide mimetics; peptides; Pharmacology & Pharmacy; Plasma kallikrein; stability; system|
Apelins are human peptide hormones with various physiological activities, including the moderation of cardiovascular, renal, metabolic and neurological function. Their potency is dependent on and limited by proteolytic degradation in the circulatory system. Here we identify human plasma kallikrein (KLKB1) as a protease that cleaves the first three N-terminal amino acids (KFR) of apelin-17. The cleavage kinetics are similar to neprilysin (NEP), which cleaves within the critical 'RPRL'-motif thereby inactivating apelin. The resulting C-terminal 14-mer after KLKB1 cleavage has much lower biological activity, and the presence of its N-terminal basic arginine seems to negate the blood pressure lowering effect. Based on C-terminally engineered apelin analogs (A2), resistant to angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), attachment of an N-terminal C16 fatty acid chain (PALMitoylation) or polyethylene glycol chain (PEGylation) minimizes KLKB1 cleavage of the 17-mers, thereby extending plasma half-life while fully retaining biological activity. The N-terminally PEGylated apelin-17(A2) is a highly protease resistant analog, with excellent apelin receptor activation and pronounced blood pressure lowering effect. (C) 2019 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.