Red tides in Shiwha Bay, western Korea: A huge dike and tidal power plant established in a semi-enclosed embayment system

TitleRed tides in Shiwha Bay, western Korea: A huge dike and tidal power plant established in a semi-enclosed embayment system
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsKang N.S, Lee K.H, Jeong H.J, Yoo D.Y, Seong K.A, Potvin E., Hwang Y.J, Yoon E.Y
JournalHarmful Algae
Volume30
PaginationS114-S130
Date Published2013/12
Type of ArticleArticle
ISBN Number1568-9883
Accession NumberWOS:000328305100011
Keywordscoastal waters; dna gene sequence; Food web; gyrodiniellum-shiwhaense; Harmful algal bloom; heterosigma-akashiwo; marine diatoms; Mixotrophy; planktonic heterotrophic dinoflagellate; prorocentrum-minimum; Protist; Red tide; skeletonema-costatum; small-scale; Tidal power plant; turbulence; uptake kinetics
Abstract

To investigate red tides in Shiwha Bay, Korea, where a 12.7-km dike with two outlets (at the water gate and tidal power plant) was constructed, we measured physical, chemical, and biological properties at 3 fixed stations inside the dike on a monthly basis from May 2008 to July 2012. During the study period, red tides were present in Shiwha Bay during 33 of 46 (i.e., 72%) sampling events. Clearly, red tides are common in the bay. Red tides occurred 33, 12, and 10 times at Stations 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Restriction of water circulation at Station 1 (in the innermost part of the bay) may cause more frequent red tides due to phototrophic dinoflagellates than at Station 3, where water exchange between the inside and outside of the dike occurs through a water gate. After the world's largest tidal power plant was established in 2011, red-tide causative species switched from phototrophic dinoflagellates such as Gymnodinium aureolum, Heterocapsa rotundata, Heterocapsa triquetra, Kariodinium veneficum, Paragymnodinium shiwhaense, and Pro rocentrum minimum to diatoms such as Chaetoceros spp., Skeletonema costatum, and Thalassiosira spp. Exchange of seawater between the inside and outside of the dike through the tidal power plant may have resulted in this change in the causative species. Inorganic nitrogen concentrations for the growth of phototrophic dinoflagellates and small flagellates during red tides were likely unlimited, but inorganic phosphorus concentrations may be limited. Thus, some phototrophic dinoflagellates and flagellates may acquire phosphorus from prey. The maximum grazing coefficients of the heterotrophic dinoflagellates Pfiesteria piscicida, Gyrodiniellum shiwhaense, Gyrodinium dominansl Gyrodinium moestrupii, and Protoperidinium bipes feeding on red-tide causative taxa including cryptophytes, Eutreptiella gymnastica, P. minimum, and S. costatum, were found to be 0.14-0.77 h(-1). Therefore, heterotrophic protistan grazers in Shiwha Bay may, at times, have considerable grazing impact on populations of co-occurring red-tide organisms. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

DOI10.1016/j.hal.2013.10.011
Short TitleHarmful Algae
Integrated Research Themes: 
Student Publication: 
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