|Title||Scenarios for the making of vertebrates|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2015|
|Authors||Holland N.D, Holland LZ, Holland P.WH|
|Type of Article||Review|
|Keywords||animal phyla; chordate body; common origin; developing hemichordate; evolution; expression; insights; nervous-system; saccoglossus-kowalevskii; Segmentation|
Over the past 200 years, almost every invertebrate phylum has been proposed as a starting point for evolving vertebrates. Most of these scenarios are outdated, but several are still seriously considered. The short-range transition from ancestral invertebrate chordates (similar to amphioxus and tunicates) to vertebrates is well accepted. However, longer-range transitions leading up to the invertebrate chordates themselves are more controversial. Opinion is divided between the annelid and the enteropneust scenarios, predicting, respectively, a complex or a simple ancestor for bilaterian animals. Deciding between these ideas will be facilitated by further comparative studies of multicellular animals, including enigmatic taxa such as xenacoelomorphs.