|Title||Seismic velocity structure in the Hot Springs and Trifurcation areas of the San Jacinto fault zone, California, from double-difference tomography|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2014|
|Authors||Allam A.A, Ben-Zion Y., Kurzon I., Vernon F|
|Journal||Geophysical Journal International|
|Type of Article||Article|
|Keywords||andreas fault; bimaterial interface; Body waves; crustal structure; dynamic rupture; Earthquake dynamics; friction; ground-motion; local earthquake tomography; peninsular ranges; poissons ratio; precariously balanced rocks; Seismic; Seismicity and tectonics; southern-california; tomography; Transform faults; weakening|
We present tomographic images of crustal velocity structures in the complex Hot Springs and Trifurcation areas of the San Jacinto Fault Zone (SJFZ) based on double-difference inversions of earthquake arrival times. We invert for V-P, V-S and hypocentre location within 50 x 50 x 20 km(3) volumes, using 266 969 P and 148 249 S arrival times. We obtain high-fidelity images of seismic velocities with resolution on the order of a few kilometres from 2 to 12 km depth and validate the results using checkerboard tests. Due to the relatively large proportion of S-wave arrival times, we also obtain stable maps of V-P/V-S ratios in both regions. The velocity of the Trifurcation Area as a whole is lower than adjacent unfaulted material. We interpret a 4-km-wide low velocity zone with high V-P/V-S ratio in the trifurcation itself as related to fault zone damage. We also observe clear velocity contrasts across the Buck Ridge, Clark and Coyote Creek segments of the SJFZ. The Anza segment of the SJFZ, to the NW of the trifurcation area, displays a strong (up to 27 per cent) contrast of V-S from 2 to 9 km depth. In the Hot Springs area, a low velocity zone between the Claremont and Casa Loma Strands narrows with depth, with clear velocity contrasts observed across both segments. A roughly 10-km-wide zone of low velocity and low V-P/V-S ratio at the NW tip of the Hot Springs fault is indicative of either unconsolidated sediments associated with the San Jacinto basin, or fluid-filled cracks within a broad deformation zone. High V-P/V-S ratios along the Anza segment could indicate a preferred nucleation location for future large earthquakes, while the across-fault velocity contrast suggests a preferred northwest rupture propagation direction for such events.