|Title||Southern Ocean biogeochemical float deployment strategy, with example from the Greenwich Meridian line (GO-SHIP A12)|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2018|
|Authors||Talley LD, Rosso I., Kamenkovich I., Mazloff MR, Wang J., Boss E., Gray A.R, Johnson K.S, Key R., Riser S.C, Williams N.L, Sarmiento J.L|
|Journal||Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans|
|Keywords||Southern Ocean, water masses, circulation, carbon cycle, sea ice, biogeochemical floats|
Biogeochemical Argo floats, profiling to 2000 m depth, are being deployed throughout the Southern Ocean by the Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate Observations and Modeling program (SOCCOM). The goal is 200 floats by 2020, to provide the first full set of annual cycles of carbon, oxygen, nitrate and optical properties across multiple oceanographic regimes. Building from no prior coverage to a sparse array, deployments are based on prior knowledge of water mass properties, mean frontal locations, mean circulation and eddy variability, winds, air-sea heat/freshwater/carbon exchange, prior Argo trajectories, and float simulations in the Southern Ocean State Estimate (SOSE) and Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM). Twelve floats deployed from the 2014-2015 Polarstern cruise from South Africa to Antarctica are used as a test case to evaluate the deployment strategy adopted for SOCCOM's 20 deployment cruises and 126 floats to date. After several years, these floats continue to represent the deployment zones targeted in advance: (1) Weddell Gyre sea ice zone, including the Antarctic Slope Front, Maud Rise, and the open gyre; (2) Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) including the topographically-steered Southern zone ‘chimney' where upwelling carbon/nutrient-rich deep waters produce surprisingly large carbon dioxide outgassing; (3) Subantarctic and Subtropical zones between the ACC and Africa; and (4) Cape Basin. Argo floats and eddy-resolving HYCOM simulations were the best predictors of individual SOCCOM float pathways, with uncertainty after 2 years on the order of 1000 km in the sea ice zone and more than double that in and north of the ACC.