|Title||Subharmonic Energy Transfer from the Semidiurnal Internal Tide to Near-Diurnal Motions over Kaena Ridge, Hawaii|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2013|
|Authors||Sun OM, Pinkel R|
|Journal||Journal of Physical Oceanography|
|Type of Article||Article|
|Keywords||balance; bispectral analysis; deep-ocean; dynamics; field; finite amplitude; flux; gravity-wave spectrum; nonlinear-interactions; resonant interactions|
Nonlinear energy transfers from the semidiurnal internal tide to high-mode, near-diurnal motions are documented near Kaena Ridge, Hawaii, an energetic generation site for the baroclinic tide. Data were collected aboard the Research Floating Instrument Platform (FLIP) over a 35-day period during the fall of 2002, as part of the Hawaii Ocean Mixing Experiment (HOME) Nearfield program. Energy transfer terms for a PSI resonant interaction at midlatitude are identified and compared to those for near-inertial PSI close to the M-2 critical latitude. Bispectral techniques are used to demonstrate significant energy transfers in the Nearfield, between the low-mode M-2 internal tide and subharmonic waves with frequencies near M-2/2 and vertical wavelengths of O(120 m). A novel prefilter is used to test the PSI wavenumber resonance condition, which requires the subharmonic waves to propagate in opposite vertical directions. Depth-time maps of the interactions, formed by directly estimating the energy transfer terms, show that energy is transferred predominantly from the tide to subharmonic waves, but numerous reverse energy transfers are also found. A net forward energy transfer rate of 2x10(-9) W kg(-1) is found below 400 m. The suggestion is that the HOME observations of energy transfer from the tide to subharmonic waves represent a first step in the open-ocean energy cascade. Observed PSI transfer rates could account for a small but significant fraction of the turbulent dissipation of the tide within 60 km of Kaena Ridge. Further extrapolation suggests that integrated PSI energy transfers equatorward of the M-2 critical latitude may be comparable to PSI energy transfers previously observed near 28.8 degrees N.