|Title||Targeted antibiotic discovery through biosynthesis-associated resistance determinants: target directed genome mining|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||Submitted|
|Authors||O'Neill E.C, Schorn M., Larson C.B, Millan-Aguinaga N.|
|Type of Article||Review|
|Keywords||23s ribosomal-rna; antibiotic resistance; azinomycin-b; escherichia-coli; fatty-acid synthesis; gene-cluster; genome; inhibitor; microbiology; Mining; molecular-mechanisms; natural products; proteasome; Secondary metabolites; self-resistance; transfer-rna synthetase; transition-state analog|
Intense competition between microbes in the environment has directed the evolution of antibiotic production in bacteria. Humans have harnessed these natural molecules for medicinal purposes, magnifying them from environmental concentrations to industrial scale. This increased exposure to antibiotics has amplified antibiotic resistance across bacteria, spurring a global antimicrobial crisis and a search for antibiotics with new modes of action. Genetic insights into these antibiotic-producing microbes reveal that they have evolved several resistance strategies to avoid self-toxicity, including product modification, substrate transport and binding, and target duplication or modification. Of these mechanisms, target duplication or modification will be highlighted in this review, as it uniquely links an antibiotic to its mode of action. We will further discuss and propose a strategy to mine microbial genomes for these genes and their associated biosynthetic gene clusters to discover novel antibiotics using target directed genome mining.