|Title||Three-dimensional bottom diffraction in the North Pacific|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2019|
|Authors||Stephen R.A, Bolmer S.T, Worcester P.F, Dzieciuch M.A, Udovydchenkov I.A|
|Type of Article||Article|
|Keywords||acoustics; Audiology & Speech-Language Pathology; noise; sea-floor arrivals; signals|
A significant aspect of bottom-interaction in deep water acoustic propagation, from point sources to point receivers, is the diffraction (or scattering) of energy from discrete seafloor locations along repeatable, deterministic paths in three-dimensions. These bottom-diffracted surface-reflected (BDSR) paths were first identified on the North Pacific acoustic laboratory experiment in 2004 (NPAL04) for a diffractor located on the side of a small seamount. On the adjacent deep seafloor, ambient noise and propagation in the ocean sound channel were sufficiently quiet that the BDSRs were the dominant arrival. The ocean bottom seismometer augmentation in the North Pacific (OBSANP) experiment in June-July 2013 studied BDSRs at the NPAL04 site in more detail. BDSRs are most readily identified by the arrival time of pulses as a function of range to the receiver for a line of transmissions. The diffraction points for BDSRs occur on the relatively featureless deep seafloor as well as on the sides of small seamounts. Although the NPAL04 and OBSANP experiments had very different geometries the same diffractor location is consistent with observed arrivals in both experiments within the resolution of the analysis. On OBSANP the same location excites BDSRs for 77.5, 155, and 310 Hz transmissions.