On the time-mean state of ocean models and the properties of long range acoustic propagation

TitleOn the time-mean state of ocean models and the properties of long range acoustic propagation
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsDushaw B.D, Worcester P.F, Dzieciuch M.A, Menemenlis D.
JournalJournal of Geophysical Research-Oceans
Volume118
Pagination4346-4362
Date Published2013/09
Type of ArticleArticle
ISBN Number2169-9275
Accession NumberWOS:000326230200024
Keywordsacoustic thermometry; internal tides; kauai source; model testing; north pacific-ocean; ocean models; sea; simulation; sound-propagation; temperature; thermometry; tomography; transmissions
Abstract

Receptions on three vertical hydrophone arrays from basin-scale acoustic transmissions in the North Pacific during 1996 and 1998 are used to test the time-mean sound-speed properties of the World Ocean Atlas 2005 (WOA05), of an eddying unconstrained simulation of the Parallel Ocean Program (POP), and of three data-constrained solutions provided by the estimating the circulation and climate of the ocean (ECCO) project: a solution based on an approximate Kalman filter from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (ECCO-JPL), a solution based on the adjoint method from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (ECCO-MIT), and an eddying solution based on a Green's function approach from ECCO, Phase II (ECCO2). Predictions for arrival patterns using annual average WOA05 fields match observations to within small travel time offsets (0.3-1.0 s). Predictions for arrival patterns from the models differ substantially from the measured arrival patterns, from the WOA05 climatology, and from each other, both in terms of travel time and in the structure of the arrival patterns. The acoustic arrival patterns are sensitive to the vertical gradients of sound speed that govern acoustic propagation. Basin-scale acoustic transmissions, therefore, provide stringent tests of the vertical temperature structure of ocean state estimates. This structure ultimately influences the mixing between the surface waters and the ocean interior. The relatively good agreement of the acoustic data with the more recent ECCO solutions indicates that numerical ocean models have reached a level of accuracy where the acoustic data can provide useful additional constraints for ocean state estimation.

DOI10.1002/jgrc.20325
Short TitleJ Geophys Res-Oceans
Integrated Research Themes: 
Student Publication: 
No