Tracking Mesoscale Pressure Perturbations Using the USArray Transportable Array

TitleTracking Mesoscale Pressure Perturbations Using the USArray Transportable Array
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsJacques A.A, Horel J.D, Crosman E.T, Vernon FL
JournalMonthly Weather Review
Volume145
Pagination3119-3142
Date Published2017/08
Type of ArticleArticle
ISBN Number0027-0644
Accession NumberWOS:000409304800011
Keywordsassimilation; Climatology; Convective; derecho; internal gravity-waves; seismic network; storm tracks; Surface pressure; systems; united-states; weather prediction
Abstract

Mesoscale convective phenomena induce pressure perturbations that can alter the strength and magnitude of surface winds, precipitation, and other sensible weather, which, in some cases, can inflict injuries and damage to property. This work extends prior research to identify and characterize mesoscale pressure features using a unique resource of 1-Hz pressure observations available from the USArray Transportable Array (TA) seismic field campaign. A two-dimensional variational technique is used to obtain 5-km surface pressure analysis grids every 5 min from 1 March to 31 August 2011 from the TA observations and gridded surface pressure from the Real-Time Mesoscale Analysis over a swath of the central United States. Bandpass-filtering and feature-tracking algorithms are employed to isolate, identify, and assess prominent mesoscale pressure perturbations and their properties. Two case studies, the first involving mesoscale convective systems and the second using a solitary gravity wave, are analyzed using additional surface observation and gridded data resources. Summary statistics for tracked features during the period reviewed indicate a majority of perturbations last less than 3 h, produce maximum perturbation magnitudes between 2 and 5 hPa, and move at speeds ranging from 15 to 35ms(-1). The results of this study combined with improvements nationwide in real-time access to pressure observations at subhourly reporting intervals highlight the potential for improved detection and nowcasting of high-impact mesoscale weather features.

DOI10.1175/mwr-d-16-0450.1
Short TitleMon. Weather Rev.
Student Publication: 
No