Understanding the Indian Ocean response to double CO2 forcing in a coupled model

TitleUnderstanding the Indian Ocean response to double CO2 forcing in a coupled model
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsLiu W, Lu J., Xie SP
JournalOcean Dynamics
Date Published2015/07
Type of ArticleArticle
ISBN Number1616-7341
Accession NumberWOS:000356533600008
Keywordsatmosphere model; Bjerknes feedback; circulation; CMIP5; cycle; el-nino; equatorial pacific; global warming; Indian Ocean Dipole; indo-pacific; Overriding; patterns; precipitation; WES feedback

This study investigates the roles of multiple ocean-atmospheric feedbacks in the oceanic response to increased carbon dioxide by applying an overriding technique to a coupled climate model. The annual-mean sea surface temperature (SST) response in the Indian Ocean exhibits a zonal-dipolar warming pattern, with a reduced warming in the eastern and enhanced warming in the western tropical Indian Ocean (TIO), reminiscent of the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) pattern. The development of the dipole pattern exhibits a pronounced seasonal evolution. The overriding experiments show that the wind-evaporation-sea surface temperature (WES) feedback accounts for most of the enhanced warming in the western and central TIO during May-July with reduced southerly monsoonal wind and contributes partially to the reduced warming in the eastern TIO during June-September. The Bjerknes feedback explains most of the reduced warming in the eastern TIO during August-October, accompanied by a reduction of precipitation, easterly wind anomalies, and a thermocline shoaling along the equator. Both feedbacks facilitate the formation of the dipolar warming pattern in the TIO. The residual from the Bjerknes and WES feedbacks is attributable to the "static" response to increasing CO2. While the static SST response also contributes to the seasonal SST variations, the static precipitation response is relatively uniform in the TIO, appearing as a general increase of precipitation along the equatorial Indian Ocean during June-September.

Short TitleOcean Dyn.
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