|Title||Underwater optical imaging: The past, the present, and the prospects|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2015|
|Journal||Ieee Journal of Oceanic Engineering|
|Type of Article||Article|
|Keywords||digital holography; distributions; holographic microscopy; light; mantis shrimp; ocean; phytoplankton; polarization vision; silhouette photography; Underwater optical imaging; Zooplankton|
This paper discusses the current state of underwater optical imaging in the context of physics, technology, biology, and history. The paper encompasses not only the history of human's ability to see underwater, but also the adaptations that various organisms living in oceans or lakes have developed. The continued development of underwater imaging systems at military, commercial, and consumer levels portends well for both increased visibility and accessibility by these various segments. However, the fundamental limits imposed by the environment, as currently understood, set the ultimate constraints. Physics, biology, computer modeling, processing, and the development of technology that ranges from simple cameras and lights to more advanced gated and modulated illumination are described. The future prospects for continuing advancements are also discussed.
|Short Title||IEEE J. Ocean. Eng.|