|Title||The use of an orographic precipitation model to assess the precipitation spatial distribution in Lake Kinneret watershed|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2016|
|Authors||Shamir E, Rimmer A., Georgakakos KP|
|Type of Article||Article|
|Keywords||CFS; climatic variability; forecast system; global hydro estimator; Hermon Mountain; israel; jordan river; Lake Kinneret; management; northern california; orographic precipitation model; rainfall; resources; seasonal precipitation; terrain; WRF model|
A high-resolution 3-D orographic precipitation model (OPM) forced by Climate Forecast System (CFS) reanalysis fields was developed for the Lake Kinneret watershed (Israel-Syria-Lebanon territories). The OPM was tuned to represent the interaction between the advected and stratiform rainfall, and the local orographic enhancement. The OPM evaluation was focused on the densely instrumented lower part of the watershed. To evaluate the ungauged upper-elevation, bias-adjusted precipitation estimates from the Global-Hydro-Estimator were used. The OPM simulates higher rainfall amounts in the upper-elevation watershed compared to currently used rainfall estimates from an elevation dependent regression. The larger differences are during rain events with southwesterly wind flow and high moisture flux. These conditions, according to the OPM, are conducive to enhanced orographic lifting in the Hermon Mountain. A sensitivity analysis indicated that the higher wind speeds for southwesterly-northwesterly trajectories generate significant orographic lifting and increase the precipitation differences between the lower and upper elevations.