Using direct and coda wave envelopes to resolve the scattering and intrinsic attenuation structure of Southern California

TitleUsing direct and coda wave envelopes to resolve the scattering and intrinsic attenuation structure of Southern California
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsWang W., Shearer PM
JournalJournal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth
Volume122
Pagination7236-7251
Date Published2017/09
Type of ArticleArticle
ISBN Number2169-9313
Accession NumberWOS:000412881700015
KeywordsCoda waves; crustal; crustal scattering and intrinsic attenuation structure; deep earth; frequency; heterogeneity; Monte Carlo seismic modeling; monte-carlo-simulation; multiple-scattering; p-wave; period s waves; radiative-transfer theory; random-media; seismic-waves; seismogram envelopes
Abstract

Characterizing scattering and absorbing properties and the power spectrum of crustal heterogeneity is a fundamental problem for informing strong ground motion estimates at high frequencies, where scattering and attenuation effects are critical. We perform a comprehensive study of local earthquake coda waves in Southern California to constrain scattering and intrinsic attenuation structure. We analyze data from 1195 spatially distributed earthquakes from 1981 to 2013 at source depths of 10 to 15 km and epicentral distances from 0 to 250 km with magnitudes larger than 1.8. We stack envelope functions from 28,127 vertical component and 27,521 transverse component seismograms, filtered from 2 to 4 Hz. We model these observations using a particle-based Monte Carlo algorithm that includes intrinsic attenuation as well as both P and S wave scattering and both single and multiple scattering events. We find that spatially averaged coda wave behavior for Southern California can be explained only with models containing an increase in scattering strength and intrinsic attenuation within the uppermost crust, i.e., they are poorly fit with half-space models of constant scattering strength. A reasonable fit to our data is obtained with a two-layer model, composed of a shallow crustal layer with strong wide-angle scattering and high P and S intrinsic attenuation and a deeper layer with weaker scattering and lower intrinsic attenuation (top 5.5 km: (alpha)Q(I) = 250, (beta)Q(I) = 125, heterogeneity correlation length a = 50 m, fractional velocity heterogeneity epsilon = 0.4; lower crust: (alpha)Q(I) = 900, (beta)Q(I) = 400, a = 2 km, epsilon = 0.05). Plain Language Summary In summary, we have built a one-dimensional depth-dependent intrinsic and scattering attenuation model of Southern California to resolve the characteristics of the high-frequency (2-4 Hz) wavefield for events from 1981 to 2013. The envelope function stacking method provides the spatially averaged coda energy, including both the P and S wave coda decay and their relative amplitude information. We model the data stacks using energy-conserving and multiscattering regional Monte Carlo simulations. The synthetic results show the Southern California region can be reasonably fit with a two-layered model composed of a shallow crustal layer with strong wide-angle scattering and high intrinsic attenuation and a deeper layer with weaker scattering and lower intrinsic attenuation.

DOI10.1002/2016jb013810
Student Publication: 
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