|Title||Wavefront intensity statistics for 284-Hz broadband transmissions to 107-km range in the Philippine Sea: Observations and modeling|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2013|
|Authors||White A.W, Andrew R.K, Mercer J.A, Worcester P.F, Dzieciuch M.A, Colosi J.A|
|Journal||Journal of the Acoustical Society of America|
|Type of Article||Article|
|Keywords||acoustic transmission; fluctuations; frequency; north pacific-ocean; propagation; simulation; sound; spectrum|
In the spring of 2009, broadband transmissions from a ship-suspended source with a 284-Hz center frequency were received on a moored and navigated vertical array of hydrophones over a range of 107 km in the Philippine Sea. During a 60-h period over 19 000 transmissions were carried out. The observed wavefront arrival structure reveals four distinct purely refracted acoustic paths: One with a single upper turning point near 80 m depth, two with a pair of upper turning points at a depth of roughly 300 m, and one with three upper turning points at 420 m. Individual path intensity, defined as the absolute square of the center frequency Fourier component for that arrival, was estimated over the 60-h duration and used to compute scintillation index and log-intensity variance. Monte Carlo parabolic equation simulations using internal-wave induced sound speed perturbations obeying the Garrett-Munk internal-wave energy spectrum were in agreement with measured data for the three deeper-turning paths but differed by as much as a factor of four for the near surface-interacting path. (C) 2013 Acoustical Society of America.