What controls equatorial Atlantic winds in boreal spring?

TitleWhat controls equatorial Atlantic winds in boreal spring?
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2014
AuthorsRichter I., Behera S.K, Doi T., Taguchi B., Masumoto Y., Xie SP
JournalClimate Dynamics
Volume43
Pagination3091-3104
Date Published2014/12
Type of ArticleArticle
ISBN Number0930-7575
Accession NumberWOS:000344862200012
Keywordsatlantic; atmospheric boundary-layer; biases; Bjerknes feedback; cold-tongue; Double ITCZ; enso; Equatorial Atlantic; Gill model; gradients; interannual variability; Lindzen-Nigam model; model; Nino; ocean; sea-surface temperature; Surface winds; tropical pacific
Abstract

The factors controlling equatorial Atlantic winds in boreal spring are examined using both observations and general circulation model (GCM) simulations from the coupled model intercomparison phase 5. The results show that the prevailing surface easterlies flow against the attendant pressure gradient and must therefore be maintained by other terms in the momentum budget. An important contribution comes from meridional advection of zonal momentum but the dominant contribution is the vertical transport of zonal momentum from the free troposphere to the surface. This implies that surface winds are strongly influenced by conditions in the free troposphere, chiefly pressure gradients and, to a lesser extent, meridional advection. Both factors are linked to the patterns of deep convection. Applying these findings to GCM errors indicates, that, consistent with the results of previous studies, the persistent westerly surface wind bias found in most GCMs is due mostly to precipitation errors, in particular excessive precipitation south of the equator over the ocean and deficient precipitation over equatorial South America. Free tropospheric influences also dominate the interannual variability of surface winds in boreal spring. GCM experiments with prescribed climatological sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) indicate that the free tropospheric influences are mostly associated with internal atmospheric variability. Since the surface wind anomalies in boreal spring are crucial to the development of warm SST events (Atlantic Ninos), the results imply that interannual variability in the region may rely far less on coupled air-sea feedbacks than is the case in the tropical Pacific.

DOI10.1007/s00382-014-2170-0
Short TitleClim. Dyn.
Integrated Research Themes: 
Student Publication: 
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