The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, created in 1989 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) developes several highly instrumented ground stations to study cloud formation processes and their influence on radiative transfer. Instruments include measurements of aerosol and precipitation, and the original ground sites were supplemented with three mobile facilities and an aerial facility. ARM’s scientific infrastructure with data archives were designated by DOE as a scientific user facility—the ARM Climate Research Facility—in 2003, and are used by scientists worldwide. The lists below covers most of the instruments used in the AWARE Mission. Instruments Page at the ARM Program

The following two tables list the instruments deployed at WAIS and McMurdo for the AWARE Mission. Much of the WAIS equipment contains duplicate (additional) instruments of their counterparts with the main AMF2 at McMurdo. Some instruments (indicated by an asterisk) are singles that will be deployed first at WAIS and then reinstalled at McMurdo when the WAIS container is removed by late January 2016.

Table 1. Instruments Deployed to West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS):

Instrument Name Instrument Acronym Quantities Measured
Upward-looking precision spectral pyranometer SKYRAD PSP Downwelling total shortwave irradiance
Upward-looking Eppley model 8-48 diffuse pyranometer SKYRAD 8-48 Downwelling diffuse shortwave irradiance
Upward-looking precision infrared radiometer SKYRAD PIR Downwelling longwave irradiance
Upward-looking Infrared thermometer SKYRAD IRT Sky equivalent blackbody temperature
Downward-looking precision spectral pyranometer GRNDRAD PSP Upwelling shortwave radiation reflected by surface
Downward-looking precision infrared radiometer GRNDRAD PIR Upwelling longwave radiation emitted by surface
Downward-looking Infrared thermometer GRNDRAD IRT Surface equivalent blackbody temperature
Cimel sunphotometer CSPHOT Multispectral direct solar irradiances
Multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer MFRSR Direct normal, diffuse horizontal, and total horizontal irradiances at six standard wavelengths
Analytical Spectral Devices FieldSpec Pro shortwave spectroradiometer (SIO) ASD Downwelling spectral shortwave irradiance 350-2200 nm
Eddy correlation flux measurement system ECOR Surface turbulent fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, latent heat, and carbon dioxide
Total sky imager TSI Cloud fraction
Vaisala ceilometer VCEIL Cloud base height
Parsivel optical disdrometer PARSIVEL Precipitation particle size distribution and fall speed
Vaisala present weather detector PWD Visibility, precipitation detection
G-band vapor radiometer GVRP High-time-resolution water vapor and temperature profiling, and column-integrated liquid water and water vapor
Microwave radiometer, two channel MWR, 2C Column-integrated liquid water and water vapor
Balloon-borne sounding system SONDE Vertical profiles of T, P, RH, wind speed and direction
Meteorological instrumentation at AMF MET Near-surface (2 m) T, P, RH, wind speed and direction

 

Table 2. Instruments Deployed to Ross Island (McMurdo Station CosRay Site). Instruments marked with asterisk are deployed first at WAIS November 2015-January 2016 then redeployed to CosRay for the remainder of the field program.

 

Instrument Name Instrument Acronym Quantities Measured
X-band and Ka-band scanning ARM cloud radar SACR Cloud particle co-polar and cross-polar radar reflectivity, Doppler velocity, linear depolarization ratio, differential reflectivity
Scanning W-band ARM cloud radar SWACR Cloud particle radar reflectivity, Doppler power spectrum
Ka-band ARM zenith radar KAZR Cloud particle Doppler moments (reflectivity, vertical velocity, spectral width) at high (30 m) range resolution
Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer AERI Absolute thermal infrared spectral radiance emitted by the atmosphere down to the instrument
High spectral resolution lidar HSRL Aerosol optical depth, volume backscatter, cross section, cloud and aerosol depolarization
Micropulse lidar MPL Altitude of cloud layers
Vaisala ceilometer VCEIL Cloud base height
Beam-steerable radar wind profiler BSRWP Wind and virtual temperature profiles
Parsivel optical disdrometer PARSIVEL Precipitation particle size distribution and fall speed
Cloud condensation nuclei counter CCN Cloud condensation nuclei as function of supersaturation
Condensation particle counter CPC Total aerosol particle concentration down to diameter 10 nm
Hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer HTDMA Aerosol size, mass, or number distribution as function of RH
Ambient nephelometer NEPH AMB Aerosol light scattering coefficient at ambient RH
Dry nephelometer NEPH DRY Dry aerosol light scattering coefficient
Ozone O3 Ozone concentration
Particle soot absorption photometer PSAP Optical transmittance of aerosol particles
Aerosol filter sampling (SIO) AER FLTR Aerosol chemical composition
Upward-looking precision spectral pyranometer SKYRAD PSP Downwelling total shortwave irradiance
Upward-looking Eppley model 8-48 diffuse pyranometer SKYRAD 8-48 Downwelling diffuse shortwave irradiance
Upward-looking precision infrared radiometer SKYRAD PIR Downwelling longwave irradiance
Upward-looking Infrared thermometer SKYRAD IRT Sky equivalent blackbody temperature
Downward-looking precision spectral pyranometer GRNDRAD PSP Upwelling shortwave radiation reflected by surface
Downward-looking precision infrared radiometer GRNDRAD PIR Upwelling longwave radiation emitted by surface
Downward-looking Infrared thermometer GRNDRAD IRT Surface equivalent blackbody temperature
Cimel sunphotometer CSPHOT Multispectral direct solar irradiances
Multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer MFRSR Direct normal, diffuse horizontal, and total horizontal irradiances at six standard wavelengths
(*) Analytical Spectral Devices FieldSpec Pro shortwave spectroradiometer (SIO) (*) ASD Downwelling spectral shortwave irradiance 350-2200 nm
Eddy correlation flux measurement system ECOR Surface turbulent fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, latent heat, and carbon dioxide
Total sky imager TSI Cloud fraction
Vaisala present weather detector PWD Visibility, precipitation detection
Hotplate total precipitation sensor TPS Precipitation amount
Microwave radiometer, two channel MWR, 2C Column-integrated liquid water and water vapor
Balloon-borne sounding system SONDE Vertical profiles of T, P, RH, wind speed and direction
Meteorological instrumentation at AMF MET Near-surface (2 m) T, P, RH, wind speed and direction
Local meteorology at top of AOS stack AOS MET Wind speed, direction, T, RH, P

Instruments Operating – AMF2 CosRay Site McMurdo Station

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