CO2 levels increasing at a faster rate than before Continue reading Record Annual Increase of Carbon Dioxide Observed for 2015
Leader of Keeling Curve measurement says temporary bump from El Niño could push atmospheric CO2 levels above symbolic threshold for good Continue reading Is This the Last Year Below 400?
Scripps Oceanography lab monitoring atmospheric CO2 named National Historic Chemical Landmark
Continue reading American Chemical Society to Honor Keeling Curve in June 12 Ceremony
Repost of April 2013 entry
The Mauna Loa carbon dioxide (CO2) record, also known as the “Keeling Curve,” is the world’s longest unbroken record of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations.
Continue reading What Does This Number Mean?
The rate of growth in carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere has accelerated since the beginnings of the Keeling Curve. Continue reading Is the Rate of CO2 Growth Slowing or Speeding Up?
Scientists make CO2 measurements in remote locations to obtain air that is representative of a large volume of Earth’s atmosphere and relatively free from local influences that could skew readings. Continue reading How are CO2 Data Processed?
Question submitted to Scripps Oceanography science magazine explorations now by Ruben M., Watsonville, Calif.
Great question Ruben! The surface temperature we experience every day is not expected to perfectly track CO2 because CO2 isn’t the only factor driving climate change. Still, it is quite an important factor, and the overall rise in temperature does roughly follow the overall rise in CO2.
The temperatures we experience every day reflect only a portion of the solar energy absorbed by the earth. For instance, the long-term warming effects of CO2 and other greenhouse gases are largely buffered by the ocean, which absorbs more than 90 percent of the excess heat caused by human emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases.
Furthermore, human-caused warming is superimposed on a naturally variable climate system, driven by various dynamic processes and events that influence the temperatures we experience.
Because CO2 can remain in the atmosphere for a century or longer, its increasing concentration due to human activities warms our climate over long periods of time. Through its absorption and emission of energy back onto Earth’s surface, increased atmospheric CO2 traps more heat in the climate system. Its warming effect, however, is simultaneously amplified and dampened by positive and negative feedbacks such as increased water vapor (the most powerful greenhouse gas), reduced albedo, which is a measure of Earth’s reflectivity, changes in cloud characteristics, and CO2 exchanges with the ocean and terrestrial ecosystems.
Shorter-lived greenhouse gases and particles such as methane and black carbon emitted by human activities also contribute to observed trends in global mean temperatures. Some air pollution particles, such as sulfates, can have cooling effects through their reflection of incoming solar radiation.
The gradual warming of the climate system caused by human activities is superimposed on natural phenomena such as El Niño Southern Oscillation, a climate cycle driven by changes in atmospheric and ocean circulation and sea surface temperatures in the equatorial Pacific. Similar but longer-term natural variability can also influence global mean surface temperature trends over several decades, as Scripps researchers have recently reported.
Also, volcanic eruptions such as that of the Philippines’ Mt. Pinatubo in 1991 can cool the planet for a few years by adding sulfate particles into the stratosphere, reflecting solar radiation back to space.
Finally, the 11-year solar sunspot cycle can cause fluctuations in the global temperature record that may not be as visible amid the numerous human and natural factors regulating our complex climate system. Global mean surface temperatures are only one way to assess the full impact of fossil fuel emissions and they do not reflect the regional aspects and ever-growing complexity of our changing climate.
– Yassir Eddebbar is a third year doctoral student in the Scripps CO2 Laboratory, Climate-Ocean-Atmosphere Program
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Could hit 400 parts per million in January Continue reading The Annual Rise in CO2 Levels Has Begun
Tim Lueker, research scientist in the Scripps CO2 Research Group, only needs one sentence to explain why atmospheric CO2 peaks in May. Continue reading Why Does Atmospheric CO2 Peak in May?
May 10 Comment:
NOAA has reported 400.03 for May 9, 2013, while Scripps has reported 399.73. The difference partly reflects Continue reading Special note on May 9, 2013 reading