Located 25 miles south of the equator is Jarvis Island; a 4.5 square kilometer (1.75 sq. mile) small coral island. The island’s first known sighting by Europeans was on 21 August 1821 by the British ship Eliza Francis owned by the Jarvis family and commanded by Captain Brown. In March 1857 the uninhabited island was claimed for the United States under the Guano Islands Act and formally annexed on 27 February 1858. For the following twenty-one years, Jarvis was commercially mined for guano, sent to the United States as fertilizer. The United Kingdom annexed the island on 3 June 1889 and the United States reclaimed it in March of 1935, under the Baker, Howland, and Jarvis Colonization Scheme. Since 27 June 1974, Jarvis Island has been administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as the Jarvis Island National Wildlife Refuge.